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Achilles TendonitisThe Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the human body. It can withstand forces of 1,000 pounds or more. It is also the most frequently ruptured tendon. Both professional and weekend athletes can suffer from Achilles tendinitis (informally: ?tendonitis?), a common overuse injury and inflammation of the tendon.


There are several factors that can contribute to achilles tendonitis. First, you should know that the biggest contributor to chronic achilles tendonitis is ignoring pain in your achilles tendon and running through the pain of early achilles tendonitis. If your achilles tendon is getting sore it is time to pay attention to it, immediately. Sudden increases in training can contribute to achilles tendonitis. Excessive hill running or a sudden addition of hills and speed work can also contribute to this problem. Two sole construction flaws can also aggravate achilles tendonitis. The first is a sole that is too stiff, especially at the ball of the foot. (In case you are having difficulty locating the "ball" of your foot, I mean the part where the toes join the foot and at which the foot bends) If this area is stiff than the "lever arm" of the foot is longer and the achilles tendon will be under increased tension and the calf muscles must work harder to lift the heel off the ground. The second contributing shoe design factor which may lead to continuing achilles tendon problem is excessive heel cushioning. Air filled heels, while supposedly are now more resistant to deformation and leaks are not good for a sore achilles tendon. The reason for this is quite simple. If you are wearing a shoe that is designed to give great heel shock absorption what frequently happens is that after heel contact, the heel continues to sink lower while the shoe is absorbing the shock. This further stretches the achilles tendon, at a time when the leg and body are moving forward over the foot. Change your shoes to one without this "feature". Of course another major factor is excessive tightness of the posterior leg muscles, the calf muscles and the hamstrings may contribute to prolonged achilles tendonitis. Gentle calf stretching should be performed preventatively. During a bout of acute achilles tendonitis, however, overly exuberant stretching should not be performed.


Achilles tendinitis symptoms present as mild to severe pain or swelling near the ankle. The pain may lead to weakness and decreased mobility, symptoms that increase gradually while walking or running. Over time, the pain worsens, and stiffness in the tendon may be noted in the morning. Mild activity may provide relief. Physical exam may reveal an audible cracking sound when the Achilles tendon is palpated. The lower leg may exhibit weakness. A ruptured or torn Achilles tendon is severely painful and warrants immediate medical attention. The signs of a ruptured or torn Achilles tendon include. Acute, excruciating pain. Impaired mobility, unable to point the foot downward or walk on the toes. Weight bearing or walking on the affected side is not possible.


A thorough subjective and objective examination from a physiotherapist is usually sufficient to diagnose an Achilles injury such as Achilles tendonitis. Occasionally, further investigations such as an Ultrasound, X-ray or MRI scan may be required to assist with diagnosis and assess the severity of the condition.

Nonsurgical Treatment

Tendinitis usually responds well to self-care measures. But if your signs and symptoms are severe or persistent, your doctor might suggest other treatment options. If over-the-counter pain medications - such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen (Aleve) - aren't enough, your doctor might prescribe stronger medications to reduce inflammation and relieve pain. A physical therapist might suggest some of the following treatment options. Exercises. Therapists often prescribe specific stretching and strengthening exercises to promote healing and strengthening of the Achilles tendon and its supporting structures. Orthotic devices. A shoe insert or wedge that slightly elevates your heel can relieve strain on the tendon and provide a cushion that lessens the amount of force exerted on your Achilles tendon.

Achilles Tendinitis

Surgical Treatment

Surgery is considered when non-operative measures fail. Patient compliance and postoperative management is an important aspect of the operative management to prevent ankle stiffness or recurrence of the symptoms. Surgery usually requires a removal of the damaged tissue (debridement) and meticulous repair of the tendon. Post-operative immobilization is required, followed by gradual range of motion and strengthening exercises start. It may require 6 months for the full recovery. Some known complication are recurrence, stiffness of the ankle and deep vein thrombosis.


Appropriately warm up and stretch before practice or competition. Allow time for adequate rest and recovery between practices and competition. Maintain appropriate conditioning, Ankle and leg flexibility, Muscle strength and endurance, Cardiovascular fitness. Use proper technique. To help prevent recurrence, taping, protective strapping, or an adhesive bandage may be recommended for several weeks after healing is complete.
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16 Dec 2014

What is the Difference Between a Corn and a Bunion?

There are several differences between a corn and bunion.The most prominent of these is that a corn is essentially a skin related condition that may affect the nerves in the feet.A bunion conversely is a bone related condition that may ultimately irritate the skin.

A corn forms when skin on the top or bottom of the feet becomes callused.The callus can begin to push into the skin layers causing a sharp point that can jab at or irritate the nerves.This can cause pain when any pressure is exerted upon the corn.

Normal treatment for corn removal includes using a pumice stone to scrape off the corn.Some people also use corn pads, which help to "melt" the corn.However, people with diabetes should not undertake home treatment.They are greatly susceptible to foot infection and should have corns evaluated and treated by a physician.

A bunion occurs when one of the bones in the toes, normally the big toe, begins to grow in toward the other toes.This can be caused by wearing high-heeled, pointed shoes, but may also occur in people who wear relatively comfortable and roomy shoes.People with flat feet are more likely to develop bunions.Career ballet dancers may also be at greater risk from the unnatural position of the feet in toe shoes.Some medical research suggests this bone malformation may be in part genetically predetermined.

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21 Mar 2014

Arch Supports – Foot Arch Support Insoles – Arch Supports for Shoes

Arch Supports

Walking regularly on hard and flat surfaces can put strain and pressure on the arches of our feet, foot arch support products such as insoles and arch cushions can help to ease pain while working to alleviate any biomechanical foot complaints.

Arch support insoles provide support and comfort to the arch of the foot. Arch pain is generally caused by the pronation of our feet. Pronation relates to the rolling motion of the foot as we walk or run, if you over-pronate or under-pronate pressure and forces can become unevenly distributed across the foot " causing pains in the arch of the foot.

Insoles and arch support shoes can help to ease pain in the arch of the foot by providing a uniform distribution of body weight to all areas of the supporting foot. A common biomechanical foot complaint that affects the arch is Plantar Fasciitis " the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs from the heel to the toes.Keeping the arch supported and cushioned can help reduce arch pain, while arch support insoles and shoes can also assist with realigning the foot to a natural position " lowering the risk of foot pain, heel pain, back pain, knee pain and fallen arches.

At Simply Feet we offer a range of foot arch support products that help ease arch pain and treat foot health conditions such as fallen arches, Plantar Fasciitis and heel spurs. Arch support insoles are specially designed to control the position of the feet, ensuring a natural position. If you require further support, arch support shoes can provide cushioning and comfort to ease foot pain while realigning the foot.

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19 Mar 2014

Athlete's Foot Symptoms, Treatment, Medication, Home Remedies, and Prevention - MedicineNet
ArticleRelated DiseasesImages & Quizzes
Athlete's FootView the Foot Problems SlideshowFoot Problems Slideshow PicturesMedical Pictures Athlete's Foot Image CollectionRingworm Slideshow PicturesMedical Author:Gary W. Cole, MD, FAADGary W. Cole, MD, FAAD
Gary W. Cole, MD, FAAD
Dr. Cole is board certified in dermatology. He obtained his BA degree in bacteriology, his MA degree in microbiology, and his MD at the University of California, Los Angeles. He trained in dermatology at the University of Oregon, where he completed his residency.
View Full ProfileMedical Editor:William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACRWilliam C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
View Full ProfileAthlete's foot factsWhat is athlete's foot?What are the symptoms and signs of athlete's foot?What does athlete's foot look like?Is athlete's foot contagious?What else causes foot rashes?What is the treatment for athlete's foot?What home remedy can I use for athlete's foot?How can I treat athlete's foot in pregnancy?When should I seek medical care?What are possible complications of athlete's foot?What kind of doctor treats athlete's foot?How can I prevent future athlete's foot infections?Pictures of Foot Problems - SlideshowMedical Pictures Athlete's Foot Image CollectionPictures of Ringworm - Slideshow
Patient Comments: Athlete's Foot - SymptomsPatient Comments: Athlete's Foot- CausesPatient Comments: Athlete's Foot - TreatmentFind a local Dermatologist in your town

Athlete's foot factsAthlete's foot is a common skin infection of the webs of the toes and soles of the feet.
When caused by a fungus, athlete's foot may spread to the palms, groin, and body.
Fungal infections of the feet are contagious and can be spread person to person or by walking on contaminated objects and floors.
Athlete's foot may cause foot itching, burning, pain, andscaling.When athlete's foot is caused by a fungus, it can be treatedwith antifungal medications, many of which are available over the counter.Keeping the feet dry by using cotton socks and
breathable shoes can help prevent athlete's foot.

What is athlete's foot?
Athlete's foot is a very common skin condition that affects the sole of the foot and the skin between the toes.It is usually a scaly, red, itchy eruption and occasionally may be weepy and oozing.It affects the feet of athletes and nonathletes alike.Although it is frequently caused by a fungal infection, other causes may be indistinguishable without proper testing.

The medical name for athlete's foot caused by a fungus is tinea pedis. There are a variety of fungi that cause athlete's foot, and these can be contracted in many locations, including gyms, locker rooms, swimming pools, nail salons, and from contaminated socks and clothing. The fungi can also be spread directly from person to person by contact. Most people acquire fungus on the feet from walking barefoot in areas where someone else with athlete's foot has walked. Some people are simply more prone to this condition while others seem relatively resistant to it.Another colorful name for this condition is "jungle rot," often used by members of the armed services serving in tropical climates.

Without the proper environment (warmth and moisture), the fungus may not easily infect the skin. Up to 70% of the population may develop athlete's foot at some time. An infection by athlete's foot fungi does not confer any resistance to subsequent infections.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/19/2013

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18 Mar 2014

Symptoms of Vasculitis
What are the Symptoms of Vasculitis?What Organ Systems are Affected?What are the symptoms of vasculitis?
The symptoms of vasculitis depend on the particular blood vessels that are involved by the inflammatory process.

Different types of vasculitis involve blood vessels in characteristic locations throughout the body. For example, Giant Cell Arteritis typically involves the medium- to large-sized blood vessels supplying the head and neck, but rarely involves the blood vessels of the kidneys. In contrast, Wegener's Granulomatosis (GPA) frequently involves the kidneys, very often the lungs, and almost always the upper respiratory tract, but rarely blood vessels to the brain. As depicted in the image below, Buerger's disease involves the fingers and (toes). Gangrene can result from a profound lack of blood flow.


Different types of vasculitis have characteristic (localized) patterns of blood vessel involvement. However, vasculitis is a systemic illness. Thus, patients with vasculitis feel sick. They often have fevers, weight loss, fatigue, a rapid pulse, and diffuse aches and pains that are difficult to pinpoint. It has been said that vasculitis is a "hurting disease", because it is so commonly associated with pain of one type or another: pain from a nerve infarction, pain from insufficient blood to the gastrointestinal tract, pain from skin ulcers. In some cases, however, identifying the source and underlying cause of the pain is extremely challenging. In addition to these diffuse, poorly-localized "constitutional symptoms", vasculitis may involve virtually every organ system in the body.
What organ systems may be affected?SkinJointsLungsKidneysGastrointestinal tractBloodSinuses, nose, and earsEyesBrainNerve

It is important to note that not every organ system will be affected in every patient. The pattern of organ involvement (and symptoms) is unique to the individual, as well as the type of vasculitis (category).

A variety of rashes, the most classic of which is "palpable purpura" -purplish-red spots, usually found on the legs. These spots can usually be felt by the examiner's fingertips, hence the descriptor "palpable". The image below is a classic example of palpable purpura. These lesions result from the leakage of blood into the skin through inflamed, damaged blood vessels. They tend to occur in "crops".


Repeated bouts of purpura may lead to hyperpigmented areas of the skin, as shown below.


Symptoms range from full-blown arthritis to aches in the joints without obvious swelling (arthralgias).

Pictured below is an example of Henoch-Sch?nlein purpura: cutaneous vasculitis manifested by palpable purpura and arthritis (note the right ankle swelling). The diagnosis was confirmed by a skin biopsy, with immunofluorescence positive for IgA deposition witin blood vessel walls.


Cough (particularly coughing up blood), shortness of breath, a pneumonia-like appearance to a patient's chest X-ray, lung "infiltrates", and the development of cavities in the lungs.

Below is an image of a CAT scan of the lungs of a 73 year-old woman complaining of constitutional symptoms, shortness of breath, and bloody sputum. The patient also had glomerulonephritis, a positive P-ANCA, and antibodies to myeloperoxidase. The diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis was made.


Eleven days later, as the patient's symptoms worsened, a chest X-ray confirmed progression of her lung hemorrhage. The X-ray shows fluffy infiltrates in both lungs, representing bleeding from damaged capillaries.

Chest Xray

Red blood cells (usually invisible to the naked eye), clumps of red blood cells (known as "casts", also invisible to the naked eye), and loss of protein in the urine. May lead to renal insufficiency and the requirement of dialysis. Depicted in the figure below is a single glomerulus (the filtering unit of the kidneys; each kidney has approximately 1 million glomeruli). This glomerulus is involved actively by an inflammatory process, particularly evident in the bottom of the figure.


Abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, perforation of the intestines.


Anemia (low hematocrit or red blood cell count) and/or a slightly elevated white blood cell count.

Chronic sinus congestion and "infections" that persist for longer than they should; hearing loss; inflammation of the nasal septum, sometimes resulting in a perforation or collapse of the bridge of the nose, as shown in the picture below.


May affect either blood vessels to the eyes, causing the sudden loss of vision, or small blood vessels withinthe eyes, leading to retinal problems, thinning of the sclera (the white part of the eyes), inflammation within the eye's different chambers, and conjunctivitis ("pinkeye"). Pictured below is an example of retinal vasculitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). The white areas represent regions of retinal infarction caused by vasculitis.


Headaches, strokes, changes in mental status, difficulty with coordination. Below, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study of the brain in central nervous system vasculitis demonstrates an intra-cerebral hemorrhage (bright area).


Shooting pains in the arms and legs, numbness, and asymmetrical weakness (i.e., weakness that involves one side of the body more than the other).

All information contained within the Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center website is intended for educational purposes only. Visitors are encouraged to consult other sources and confirm the information contained within this site. Consumers should never disregard medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something they may have read on this website.

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16 Mar 2014

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